How Big Is The Universe?

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Is the Universe infinite? Or does it somehow fold in on itself? And if so in what shape? Join us today as explore the size of the Universe. Written and presented by Prof David Kipping, with special thanks to cosmologist Prof Colin Hill for fact checking.

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Thank-you to our supporters T. Widdowson, D. Smith, M. Sloan, L. Sanborn, C. Bottaccini, D. Daughaday, A. Jones, S. Brownlee, M. Lijoi, Z. Star, T. Zanjonc, C. Wolfred, F. Rebolledo, L. Skov, E. Wilson, M. Elliot, B. Daniluk, J. Patrick-Saunders, M. Forbes, S. Vystoropskyi, S. Lee, Z. Danielson, C. Fitzgerald, V. Alexandrov, L. Macchia, C. Souter, M. Gillette, T. Jeffcoat, H. Jensen, F. Linker, J. Rockett, N. Fredrickson, B. Mlazgar, D. Holland, J. Alexander, E. Hanway, J. Molnar & I. Sandaljian.

::References used::
► Levin, J. (2001), "Topology and the Cosmic Microwave Background", Phys. Rep., 365, 251:
► de Bernardis et al. (2000), "A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation", Nature, 404, 955:
► Bennett et al. (2013), "Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results", ApJS, 208, 20
► Planck Collaboration et al. (2020), "Planck 2018 results. VI. Cosmological parameters", A&A, 641, 60
► Park, J. (1970), "The concept of transition in quantum mechanics", Fo. of Phys., 1, 23: [also ]

::Music::
Music licensed by (SS) [], or via Creative Commons (CC) Attribution License (), or with permission from the artist
► Joachim Heinrich - Y
► Falls - Ripley
► Falls - Life in Binary
► Chris Zabriskie - Neptune Flux 1
► Chris Zabriskie - Cylinder Four
► Chris Zabriskie - Cylinder Five
► Stephen Keech - Fable
► Painted Deserts - Shimmer
► Brad Hill - Fragmented []

::Video clips used::
► Zoom out through space by ESO/L. Calçada/M.
► Deep field flythrough by ESO/M. Swinbank/Instit. Comp. Cosmology/Durham U
► JWST animations by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
► Jupiter telescope images by J. W. Astronomy
► Parallax demonstration by ESA/Gaia/DPAC
► Galaxy merger animation by ESO/M. Kornmesser
► Expanding universe animation by M. Kornmesser/L. Calcada/NASA/ESA/Hubble
► Cosmological simulation by K. Dolag/Deutsches Museum/Universe Cluster
► Planck mission animation by ESA
► Expanding horizon animation by
► Recombination clip I by R. Kaehler/M. Alvarez/Tom Abel/KIPAC/CITA/Stanford
► Recombination clip II by ESO/L. Calcada
► WMAP animation by NASA/WMAP Science Team
► Planck animation by ESA
► Janna Levin footage by The Aspen Institute
► Snake footage by Matthias L
► Pacman footage by Old Classic Retro Gaming
► 2-torus animation by V. Borrelli/S. Jabrane/F. Lazarus/D. Rohmer/B. Thibert:
► Multiverse animation by Science Time

::Quotes used::
► Intro quote from Prof. Janna Levin
► Outro quote taken from "The Laughing Heart" by Charles Bukowski

::Film/TV clips used::
► Ad Astra (2019) - 20th Century Fox
► Agora (2009) - Newmarket Films
► The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007) - Warners Bros. Pictures
► Cosmos (1980) - PBS
► A Beautiful Mind (2001) - Universal Pictures
► Passengers (2016) - Sony Pictures Releasing
► Interstellar (2014) - Paramount Pictures
► The Time Machine (2002) - DreamWorks Pictures
► Logan (2017) - 20th Century Fox
► Vanilla Sky (2001) - Paramount Pictures
► The Theory of Everything (2014) - Focus Features
► Prometheus (2012) - 20th Century Fox
► Oblivion (2013) - Universal Pictures
► Star Trek: The Next Generation - Paramount
► Star Wars: The Last Jedi (2017) - Walt Disney Studio Motion Pictures
► The Matrix (1999) - Warner Bros.
► Somewhere in Time (1980) - Universal Pictures
► Into the Wild (2007) - Paramount Vantage
► Charlie St. Cloud (2010) - Universal Pictures
► The Grey (2011) - Open Road Films
► The English Patient (1996) - Miramax Films
► Her (2013) - Warner Bros. Pictures
► Arrival (2016) - Paramount Pictures
► Avengers: Endgame (2019) - Walt Disney Studio Motion Pictures

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THANKS FOR WATCHING!!

#InfiniteUniverse #HowBigIsTheUniverse #CoolWorlds
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